Ken Knowlton




"A Computer Technique for Producing Animated Movies," AFIPS Conf. Proc. 25, pp. 67-87 (Spring 1964). The earliest computer bitmap movie language.

"A Programmer's Description of L-6," Comm. ACM 9, No. 8, pp.616-625 (Aug. 1966). Bell Telepnone Laboratories' Low Level Linked List Language.

"A Fast Storage Allocator," Comm. ACM 8, No 10, pp. 623-625 (Oct 1965). Later called the "buddy" system: binary splitting/recombination of blocks.

"EXPLOR A Generator of Images from EXplicit Patterns, Local Operations & Randomness," Proc. 9th Annual UAIDE Mtg., pp 544-583 (1970).

"ATOMS A Three-dimensional Opaque Molecule System," (with L. Cherry) Computers and Chemistry 1, pp. 161-166 (1977). Ball-and-stick renderer.

"SFERES System For Efficient Rendering of Ensembles of Spheres," Computer Graphics 15, No. 1, pp. 48-71 (April 1981). Irregular shapes.

"Computer Simulation of Calligraphic Pens and Brushes," (with Karen Donoghue), Proc. 2nd Internat Symp on Electronic Art, Nov 12-16, 1990.

"For Teaching the Reading of Braille: Computer Produced Variously Contracted Translations" w. Marie Knowlton, Closing the Gap, Minn MN 1994.


"Computer Produced Grey Scales," (with L. Harmon), Computer Graphics and Image Processing 1, No. 1, pp. 1-20 (April 1972). Dithering etc.

"Progressive Transmission of Grey-scale and Binary pictures by Simple, Efficient and Lossless Encoding Schemes," Proc. IEEE 68, (July 1980).

"Perception of Sign Language from an Array of 27 Moving Spots," (with V. Tartter) Nature 289, No 5799, pp 676-678 (Feb 1981). For transmission by telephone.


"A Combination Hardware-Software Debugging System," IEEE Trans. on Computers C-17, No. 1, pp.84-86 (Jan 1968). Many errors automatically detected by simultaneously run programs with blocks of code and date differently loaded.

"Computer Displays Optically Superimposed on Input Devices," BSTJ 56, No 3, pp 367-383 (Mar 1977). The "Knowlton console" with physical buttons and displayed buttons virtually combined by half-silvered miror.

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