Ken Knowlton




A COMPUTER TECHNIQUE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ANIMATED MOIVIES, B/W, silent, 16 mm., 10 min. Produced by programming in "BEFLIX" language, run on IBM 7094, output via a Stromberg Carlson 4020 microfilm printer, re Knowlton's BEFLIX language for raster-scan (bitmap) graphic output.

L-6: (BELL) LABORATORIES' LOW LEVEL LINKED LIST LANGUAGE, Part I: introduction to Knowlton's list language L-6, 16 min; Part II: example of L-6 programming, 32 min. (and example, implicitly, of the use of computer films to demonstrate programming concepts and techniques

COMPUTER SIMULATION OF CRYSTAL GROWTH, and other films on crystal growth, with George Gilmer et al. Films made by computer visually demonstrating the results of various hypothetical atomic interactions and scenarios by which successive layers of atoms settle on a substrate, progressively forming layers of a growing crystal


With Stan Vanderbeek. MAN AND HIS WORLD, 1967: Made in conjunction with EXPO 67 in Montreal; POEMFIELDs No. 1 through 10: ten films made with Knowlton's "TARPS" language (Two-D Alphanumeric Raster Picture System, a set of macros based on BEFLIX).

With Lillian Schwartz, 1968-1974. 10 films, made mostly with variations of Knowlton's language EXPLOR (pictures based on EXplicit Patterns, Local Operations and Randomness): PIXILLATION, OLYMPIAD, UFOS, ENIGMA, GOOGOLPLEX (B/W), APOTHEOSIS, AFFINITIES, KINESIS, ALAE, METAMORPHOSIS. These films were shown in 30+ film festivals throughout the 1970's.

With Emmanuel Ghent, BAOBAB, 1978, 20 min, combining Ghent's electronic music and Knowlton's images produced by his SFERES system showing the progressive growth of a monstrous planetoid object.


"Computer Animation as an Aid to Comprehending the Universe," in D.R. Clark, ed., COMPUTERS FOR IMAGEMAKING, Pergamon Press, Oxford NY 1981

"Computer Art," in ARTIST AND COMPUTER, Ruth Leavitt, ed., Creative Computing Press, NJ, 1976

"Collaborations with Artists A Programmer's Reflections," in GRAPHIC LANGUAGES, F. Nake and A. Rosenfeld, eds., North-Holl Pub, London, 1972

"Computer Simulation of Punctate Screen Displays," in VISUAL PROSTHESIS: THE INTERDISCIPLINARY DIALOGUE," T. D. Sterling, E. A. Bering Jr, S. V. Pollack, and H. G. Vaughan Jr, eds., Academic Press, NY, 1971

"Computer-Animated Movies," in EMERGING CONCEPTS IN COMPUTER GRAPHICS, E. Secrest and J. Nievergelt, eds., W. A. Benjamin, New York, 1968

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